Botanical Specie: Piper nigrum
Psychological: Tonifying to the mind.
Physiological: Analgesic, antispasmodic, carminative, digestive, diuretic, expectorant.
Sluggish and poor circulation, constipation, flatulence, aching muscles and joints, arthritis, neuralgia, rheumatic pain, sprains, stiffness, fluid retention, chest congestion.
A strong oil that needs to be handled with care since it may cause irritation to sensitive skin. Always use with a base carrier oil.
Producing Organ: Berries
Aromatherapy Institute, Inc. Practitioner Certification Clinical I Manual, page 36.